The Great Hindu Epics
The epics of India – although not as known in the Western world – are some amazing tales that depict human life with a complexity and a richness that will amaze you.
The Mahabharata, with its complex story of war; the Bhagavad Gita, with its moral and ethical complexity; and the Ramayana, with its representation of how humans should behave… these are some incredible tales, tales that you will love and will help you understand the depth of Indian culture.
- The Mahabharata, the longest epic poem in the world, represents the core of India and its culture
- Arjuna is one of the most complex and most interesting characters in world mythology
- Part of the Mahabharata, the Bhagavad Gita acts as a spiritual and moral guide for all Hindus
- Ramayana tells the story of Rama, whose ideal life is the perfect representation of Dharma
- The tale is an allegory about human duties and rights
The Great Epics
The Mahabharata and the Ramayana are the two main epics of India. They are both written in Sanskrit, and together form the canon of Hindu scripture: Itihasa – “Writer has himself witnessed the story”, or Mahakavya, the “Great Compositions”. They are both extremely famous in India and, over the centuries, have inspired writers from all over the world.
The Ramayana tells the Story of Rama. The tradition identifies the author with Valmiki, who probably lived between 400 and 200 BCE. The story narrates the life of Rama from birth to death, praising his heroism and virtuosity.
The Mahabharata was written by the legendary Vyasa between 400 and 100 BCE. The poem has been edited and modified by a high number of writers, and the poem emerged three times its original size.
A story part of the Mahabharata became the famous Bhagavad Gita (“the Lord’s Song): nowadays it is Hinduism’s most popular scripture – Gandhi described it as a “spiritual dictionary”. The Bhagavad Gita is also the poem that brought Krishna inside the Hindu pantheon, as a new incarnation of Vishnu.
The Mahabharata is the longest epic poem in the word: it consists of over 200,000 individual verse line and long passages written in prose. It has a total word count of 1.8 million, i.e. ten times the Iliad and the Odyssey combined.
To world literature, the Mahabharata has the same importance of the Bible, the works of Shakespeare, the Quran and the poems of Homer.
According to the tradition, the Mahabharata was written by Vyasa, a sage that is also a major character inside the poem. The oldest parts of the poem are not older than 400 BCE, even if maybe the epic originated between the 8th and the 9th centuries BCE.
It is likely that the text reached the form we know today during the Gupta period (around the 4th century CE).
Vyasa is considered to be one of the seven immortals (the “Chiranjivins”), and the festival of Guru Purnima is held in his honor. According to the tradition, Vyasa dictated the text, while Ganesha wrote it down.
Even if there are dozens of major characters, one of the most important ones is undoubtedly Arjuna, the son of Pandu. He was one of the five Pandava brothers who fought against the Kauravas.
Arjuna was famous to be an extremely skilled archer and for its close relationship with Krishna, who became his charioteer. In the poem, Krishna acts as a moral guide for Arjuna: every time he has to face a dilemma, Krishna advises and guides him. All their conversation comprises the Bhagavad Gita (see below).
One of the most famous episodes of his youth is the archery competition. While exercising with a bow, the students have to shoot the eye of a wooden bird from afar – and while all the other students were distracted by the things surrounding the bird, Arjuna could only see his target, and this great focus allowed him to hit the eye on the first shot.
Another famous story sees Arjuna fighting against 100,000 enemies in one day to avenge the death of his son, killed by the enemy king. Arjuna had pledged that he would slay him before nightfall or kill himself in case of failure.
The poem narrates the story of two families, the Pandavas, and the Kauravas, who fought against each other in Kurukshetra War, a battle for the throne of Hastinapura, the kingdom ruled by the Kuru clan. The main story is interwoven with many secondary plots.
Duryodhana, the eldest of the Kaurava, is younger than Yudhishthira, the eldest of the Pandava and both of them claim to have the right to inherit the throne.
The struggle culminates in the battle of Kurukshetra and the victory of the Pandavas.
The poem ends with the death of Krishna and the end of his dynasty. The Pandava brothers ascend to heaven, and for Hinduism, all these episodes mark the beginning of the age of Kali Yuga, the final age of humankind, where there are no values and people are headed towards destruction.
The Bhagavad Gita
The Bhagavad Gita is a Sanskrit scripture, part of the Mahabharata. The entire narrative of the scripture is composed of a dialogue between Arjuna and his guide, Krishna.
When the war between the Pandavas and the Kauravas begins, Arjuna has to face heavy moral dilemmas that caused the violence and death that will come with the war. He wonders if he should renounce and ask Krishna for advice.
Krishna tells him to fulfill his warrior duty to uphold the Dharma, and in doing so Krishna offers a summary of what Hindu thinks about the dharma and the yogic ideals of moksha.
As said, the Gita is a conversation between Krishna and Arjuna. The two talk right before the beginning of the war, where two massive armies are about to destroy each other.
Arjuna, eager for war, asks Krishna to drive him in the middle of the battlefield: he sees that he will have to fight against some of his relatives, friends, and teachers. He doesn't want to kill them and is thus filled with despair. He drops the bow and wonders if he should just go away.
The two talks and Krishna resolve Arjuna's dilemmas. Even if their dialogue is set in the war context, the narrative is structured for the abstract to all situations, trying to answer basic questions about human life: its purpose, its origin, and meaning.
Spiritual concepts of the Gita
The importance of the Bhagavad Gita relies on trying to synthesize the various religious tradition of Hinduism. The text avoids indicating just one “right” spiritual path; instead, it harmonizes different ways of life and spiritual views.
The text tries to answer the questions of what a virtuous path is and how one can achieve spiritual liberation. The Gita discusses the three dominant trends in Hinduism – enlightenment-based renunciation, dharma-based householder life, and devotion-based theism – trying to forge harmony between the three.
In doing so, the Bhagavad Gita recommends that, instead of choosing one path, one should embrace all of them. People must do the right thing because they have understood that it is right, not because of its fruits – desires are the main reason why people are distorted from the spiritual life.
According to the Gita, there are many ways to spiritual realization because everyone has a different personality and a different temperament. According to one's personality, there are several paths to choose from: the path of knowledge; devotion; action; and meditation.
The Ramayana is the other epic poem of India, forming, along with the Mahabharata, the Hindu Itihasa (meaning “history” in Hindi). The epic narrates the life of Rama, the prince of the Kosala Kingdom, and the author is believed to be Valmiki.
Various scholars estimate that the earliest parts of the text were written from the 7th to the 4th century BCE and that the text grew with later additions around the 3rd century CE. It is easy to see that the Ramayana is one of the oldest epics in the world, and also one of the longest ones: it consists of 24,000 verses.
Hindus consider it to be the "first poem", and the main theme is the depiction of the duties of relationships, with characters representing the ideal father, the ideal servant, the ideal king, etc. Like the Mahabharata, the Ramayana doesn't simply tell a story: it presents the teaching of the Hindu stages, with plenty of allegorical elements.
Besides the original Indian one, there are many other versions of the tale, found in countries like the Philippines, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Malaysia.
According to the legend, the Ramayana was written by Valmiki, revered in India as the “first poet”. The Ramayana composed by Valmiki is dated from 500 BCE to 100 BCE, according to various scholars.
Of course, even if Valmiki is the original author, the Ramayana, like any other epic tale, went through a process of interpolations and redactions, and thus it is impossible to date it accurately.
Valmiki was a literary genius, whose philosophic skepticism earned him the status of an outlaw. Valmiki, besides being the author of the poem, is also an important character: he meets Rama during his exile and talks with him and – in the versions were Rama banishes his wife – he gives shelter to Sita and teaches the Ramayana to the two twins sons of Rama.
As the name says, the Ramayana tells the story of Rama, the seventh avatar of Vishnu and, along with Krishna and Gautama Buddha, his most popular incarnation. In some traditions of Hinduism, he is considered to be the Supreme Being.
Rama was the son of the king of Kosala and was married to Sita. Though part of the royal family, he lived a hard life, mostly because of some unexpected changes, that he was exiled and faced ethical questions and moral dilemmas.
His story discusses duties, rights, and social responsibilities in an allegorical way. He is a model character, and his life is a representation of the dharma.
Rama is extremely popular in India, and his character inspired other works of art, such as the Adhyatma Ramayana – a spiritual treatise; and the Ramcharitmanas – a popular dissertation that inspired the Ramilila festival performances.
Rama, the ideal hero, a powerful, virtuous prince of Ayohya, was born during an age terrorized by the demon Ravana. During his youth, he manages to do something that no other human being has been even capable of doing: to lift and string the bow of Shiva – an accomplishment that earns him the right to marry the beautiful Sita.
But when he is about to inherit the throne, his father is forced to exile him for fourteen years. Rama accepts his exile, and his wife and his brother Lakshmana go with him. While they are in the forest, the demon Ravana kidnaps Sita and tries to seduce her – but she rejects him for 10 months.
To get her back, Rama and his brother ally with the monkey king Sugriva and invade Lanka with an army of monkeys. After many battles, Rama defeats Ravana and wins back Sita. After making her undergo a trial by fire to prove her chastity, Rama and his wife return to Ayodhya to live together.
In some versions, Rama thinks that his wife had been unfaithful to him, and so he banishes her in the forest. Here she gives birth to his two sons, who later encounter Valmiki, the author of the poem, who teaches them the Ramayana.
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